Aesculapius was a mythological Roman god from Earth. He was considered a great healer, and when someone offered him a substantial sum of money to raise a man from the dead, he quickly did so. For his actions, the other gods grew jealous and killed him. Sometime later, the gods repented and had Aesculapius and the man who raised from the dead made into gods.
In 2275, Commander Spock mentioned this legend to Doctor Leonard McCoy when he commented that he wished that the new universe created by the inversion drive didn't have any death. (TOS novel: The Wounded Sky)