A battlefield commission is a field promotion given to enlisted personnel whereby they are given a rank of commissioned officer for outstanding leadership, typically in battle scenarios.
Martok received a battlefield commission from General ShiVang following his actions whilst defending his flagship from Romulans. (DS9 episode: "Once More Unto the Breach")
Enlisted Starfleet security officer Zelik Leybenzon received a battlefield commission during the Dominion War, after he repaired a damaged phaser bank aboard the USS Armstrong, which had been written off by the ship's chief engineer and chief of security. (TNG novel: Q & A)
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