The Beta Prometheans were a species native to the Beta Promethean system. They were short and pear shaped with four tentacle legs and two arms. As a people they were largely isolationist and had business ethics much like the Ferengi. They controlled all three planets in their system (Beta Prometheus 1, Beta Prometheus 2, and Beta Prometheus 3). They traded large amounts of dilithium with other species.
In 2294, a small group of Beta Promethean pirates kidnapped eleven officers from the USS Excelsior. Klingon interference with the local political process had created a large amount of anti-Federation rhetoric. Captain James T. Kirk and the former senior officers of the USS Enterprise were able to successfully rescue all but one of the hostages taken by the Prometheans. The remaining hostage, Spiros Focus, had been executed by the Klingons. (TOS novel: The Fearful Summons)
- The book jacket text of the novel calls the Beta Prometheans "Thraxian", a name only included in that one mention, possibly deriving from an earlier draft of the story.