- "Those men went on to tame a continent, Mr. Khan."
- —James T. Kirk, describing the first Australian colonists.
Botany Bay is an open oceanic embayment on Earth located on the continent of Australia near the modern day city of Sydney. (TOS episode: "Space Seed"; TOS novel: The Rise and Fall of Khan Noonien Singh, Volume 2)
During the 18th century, the United Kingdom attempted to establish their first Australian penal colony at that location and transported a number of convicts there. Due to the lack of fresh water the colony moved on to what would become Sydney. That colony became the first permanent settlement in Australia.
In the late 20th century Khan Noonien Singh named the SS Botany Bay provided to him and his fellow augments by Gary Seven in order to leave for a habitable world about 100 light years away after this first Australian colony. (TOS episode: "Space Seed"; TOS novel: The Rise and Fall of Khan Noonien Singh, Volume 2)
In the Kelvin timeline, Bernard Maltuvis of Maltuvisland and Khan Noonien Singh of the Khanate cooperated in developing the DY-100 class of sleeper ships in the 1990s decade. When Maltuvis betrayed Khan and invaded India, the Khanate launched a counter-offensive into South Asia and Australia. In 1996, Humans succeeded in overthrowing their Augment rulers, Khan and his 71 followers launched in a DY-100 he named the SS Botany Bay. The Botany Bay area was bombed during the sleeper ship's launch. (TOS - Khan comic: "Issue 3")