The Daystrom Institute was a scientific research and teaching organization, one of the most respected institutions in the Federation. Named for Dr. Richard Daystrom, the Daystrom Institute supported research and development in the fields of warp propulsion, cybernetics, astrophysics, archeology, and many others. The Daystrom Institute had several annexes across Federation space, including one at Galor IV.
When it came to artificial lifeform self-awareness and full sentience, even the experts at the Daystrom Institute were unsure where the line was between mimicking self-awareness and actually achieving it. (DS9 novel: Valhalla)
In 2294, the Institute produced a study for consideration by Starfleet Command about the suitably of starship captains leading landing parties. This in part was based on the results produced by the M-9 computer after it was fed data on hundreds of landing party assignments, and in only 10% of cases did it indicate that it was correct for a commanding officer to accompany a landing party. (TOS novel: The Captain's Daughter).
By the year 2387, the Institute along with famed engineer Geordi La Forge were responsible for the creation of the Jellyfish; an experimental craft for exploratory missions that was designed with trans-metaphasic shielding. (ST website: The Path to 2409)
In the 2390s, the Institute (or at least one major Institute facility) was located in Okinawa, Japan, on Earth. Dr. Agnes Jurati worked there in the Division of Advanced Synthetic Research. (PIC episode: "Remembrance")
- The DS9 - The Lives of Dax short story: "Infinity" establishes the Daystrom Institute existed as early as 2284. This is only sixteen years after the events of TOS episode: "The Ultimate Computer".