Esperanta refers to certain universal ideas and concepts common to all intelligent life and has been called an "interplanetary" language. It is the principle upon which the universal translator is based. The translator compares the frequencies of brain wave patterns, selects those ideas it recognizes, and provides the necessary grammar. The device speaks with a voice, or the approximation of one, that corresponds to the identity concepts it recognizes.

The term was mentioned in several encounters in which the Enterprise crew were able to communicate with alien races, e.g. the natives of the planet Zarta. (TOS comic: "Invasion of the City Builders") It was only later revealed (TOS episode: "Metamorphosis") that an electronic device, the universal translator, plays a role in such encounters.

Esperanta is a nod to the international language of Esperanto.

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AltarAndorian languages (AndoriiGraalen/GraalekGreater AndorianLesser Andorian) • Bajoran (BalwanOld BajoranOld High Bajoran) • Beta Promethean • Earth languages (Anglo-SaxonBasqueCelticEnglishFarsiFrenchGaelicGermanGreekHebrew/YiddishIboItalianJapaneseLatinMandarinRussianSpanishSwahiliTagalogWelsh) • EsperantaFederation Standard (Galacta) • Ferengi (Trading Tongue) • Galacta (Federation Standard) • GornGrennaiKlingonese (Battle LanguageKlin trade patoisKlingonaaseKumburanRumaiynta'HoltlhIngan Hol/pIqaDWarrior's Tongue) • MakaroNemarOld HebitianOld High MartianOld IllyanOlisuOmearanOrion language (High OrionKolariLow OrionTrader's Tongue/Trader's ScriptYrevish) • OrishanPaklitPayavPeRealm DialectRemanRigellian Trade DialectRomulan (RihannsuHigh RihanLow RihanOld High Rihannsu) • Sign languageSeshtoTaklathiTarnTellaran (Civil Conversation) • TholianTzikaa!nVeganVulcan (Ancient VulcanHigh TongueModern VulcanOld High Vulcan) • XenexianXlatitigu
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