The European Hegemony was a somewhat loose alliance on Earth set up during the 22nd century.
It was one of the first attempts at creating a world government. By the early 24th century, it had ceased to exist. (TNG episode: "Attached")
Matthew Root was a European Hegemony diplomat who was in San Francisco when the T'Plana-Hath landed there in the year 2063. (ST reference: Federation: The First 150 Years)
A distress call that was in common use by the Hegemony between 2123 and 2190 was sent from the Ficus sector by the Bringloidi, and received by the Starfleet in 2365. (TNG episode: "Up the Long Ladder")
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It is possible that the European Hegemony was an outgrowth of the European Union, or a colloquial term for it (similarly for the European Alliance).