The Federation Tribunal was the highest judicial body in the United Federation of Planets.
It was based on Alpha III.
It comprised nine members considered to be the most experienced members of the legal profession in the Federation. They could come from any member planet, whatever its specific membership status. They were appointed by the Federation Council and ratified by the Federation Assembly. They served for life.
The Federation Tribunal was the highest judicial body in the Federation and was the final court of appeal for matters involving interstellar relations. It could also make final rulings regarding potential violations of the Prime Directive. It was superior to the Appellate Courts.
It lacked direct enforcement powers of its own, but Tribunal members could request that the Federation Security Council conduct an investigation of important matters and deliver a full report to a joint session of the Federation Assembly and the Federation Council.
On reference stardate 1/4705.18 (c. 2219), the Federation Tribunal found the Orion Duraba Corporation guilty of 1850 separate violations of the Federation Uniform Mercantile Code in a criminal conspiracy across 20 planets (FASA RPG module: The Orions: Book of Common Knowledge).
After reporters of the United Federation of Planets Infonet linked the destruction of the Genesis Planet and USS Grissom in 2285 to the top-secret Project Genesis, they announced their intention to take a case to the Federation Tribunal to obtain leverage and demand a full account of the Genesis affair (FASA RPG module: Star Trek IV Sourcebook Update).
- The DS9 episode: "Doctor Bashir, I Presume" suggests that the Supreme Court of the United Federation of Planets is the highest court in the Federation, while the ST novel: Articles of the Federation describes the Federation Judiciary Council as such. These imply that the Federation Tribunal was replaced by one of those bodies some time before 2373.