Gaia was a cencept of mythology, a Greek goddess of the Earth, the conceptual personification of Earth as the "mother" of the Human civilization. Followers of Gaia were called Gaians. These people revered ecosystems.
In 2366, Deanna Troi encountered a being she discovered to be a similar motherly force of nature during several trance-like periods, following exposure to a virtual reality movie made by cultural anthropologists Oleph and Una. In her first few trances, she communicated with an unseen Matriarch, an Other-worlder who guided Troi through a desert toward mountains and helped her evade the pursuit of Sekhmet. Later, when learning more about those experiences on Rampart, Gunabibi explained that Matriarch and her mate were symbolic of the relationships of planet to universe, like mother earth and father universe. She compared them to Gaia and Ouranos. Other examples she cited were Awitelin Tsita & Apoyan Ta’chu in Zuni culture and Maka-akan and Nagi Tanka in Lakota culture. (TNG novel: Gulliver's Fugitives)