Background of the Hur'q
Thousands of years ago, the Hur'q were a peaceful and intelligent race of insectoids. It was a race that was technologically superior to others but they did not equip their vessels with any weaponry as they didn't have any use for them. Due to their homeworld's unique orbital cycle, which was both long and eccentric, the Hur'q were forced to go into hibernation, which lasted a thousand years. The intense radiation that their homeworld experienced, made the Hur'q dependent on their planet's radiation-resistant fungus.
When the newly established Dominion first made contact, they regarded the pacifist Hur'q to be ideal candidates for a warrior race. During one of the Hur'q hibernation periods, the Dominion removed the fungus they depended on from their homeworld. The Dominion planned to subjugate them by using the fungus as a bargaining chip, an action which the Hur'q would come to remember as "The Great Betrayal". (STO mission: "Tenebris Torquent")
Unfortunately, the fungus was essential to Hur'q biology, and it's disappearance from their homeworld damaged both their species and society. The Hur'q went insane, focusing only on consuming, and the Hur'q civilization collapsed. The fungus was reengineered by the Dominion, which became ketracel-white, a drug used to keep their newly created Jem'Hadar warriors loyal.
The Dominion attempted to salvage their plan of using the Hur'q as warriors, and lured them to planets that they wanted to subjugate via a Hur'q Signalling Device. Once the planet submitted to the Dominion, they would send in the Jem'Hadar to drive them off. On the other hand, if the planet resisted, they would permit the Hur'q to ravage it until there was nothing left. It worked for a while, but every time the Hur'q re-emerged, they became wilder and more vicious, forcing the Jem'Hadar to the breaking point.
Before their last hibernation cycle, the Hur'q decided on a different course of action. Rather than battle the Dominion, they used the Bajoran wormhole to send their forces to other quadrants, with the apparent objective of devastating the galaxy when they next emerged from their hibernation. (STO mission: "Doomed to Repeat")
During the 14th century, Hur'q invaded other quadrants, and sacked a number of worlds, including Qo'Nos. After which the Hur'q went back into hibernation, and were believed to have gone extinct by most within the Alpha and Beta Quadrants. (STO mission: "Destiny")
The Hur'q in known space
In the aftermath of the invasion, the hero Ch'gran oversaw the construction of a fleet of seven starships using captured Hur'q facilities and technology. (ST - The Lost Era novel: The Art of the Impossible)
In 2372, a Vulcan geological survey team discovered Hur'q ruins on a planet in the Gamma Quadrant and brought a cloth that had been used to wrap the Sword of Kahless. Kor realised what the cloth was and had it authenticated by Jadzia Dax on Deep Space 9. (DS9 episode: "The Sword of Kahless")
Gothmara used Hur'q DNA to create a personal army, which she used to overthrow Martok in 2376. The Hur'q had huge heads, black eyes, long gray tongues and narrow lips. They had wide shoulders, bearing two arms with three fingers and two thumbs each. The average Hur'q stood a full meter taller than most Klingons. (DS9 - The Left Hand of Destiny novels: Book One, Book Two)
It was later discovered that the Hur'q were an ancient race of insectoid scavengers, whose physiology was based on that of army ants and the armor of the samurai, that plundered much of the galaxy before the majority of their race were trapped in another dimension. With most of their fleet lost, the Hur'q would eventually vanish but they did leave elite units of Kam'Jahtae warriors in stasis, to awaken at a time to bring the Hur'q civilization back to glory. They were defeated by the crew of the USS Typhon. (TNG video game: Invasion)
In 2410, the Tzenkethi began a genocidal war upon realizing the Hur'q were not dead at all. Refusing to talk to the Alpha Quadrant Alliance because of their stances, the two sides began to fight until, during a brutal skirmish near Bajor, the Hur'q ended up hatching from various mysterious crystals found on the various worlds, now revealed to be ships holding the Hur'q. The resulting battle led to the catastrophic ravaging of Deep Space 9 until the arrival of a Dominion fleet led by Loriss 4 and Odo obliterated the attacking fleet. (Star Trek Online, "Scylla and Charybdis")
The Hur'q are an insectoid race that are germanium-based. They evolved on Havas-Kul, and due to it's eccentric orbit that removed the planet from a habital zone for a thousand years, the Hur'q go into hibernation for centuries. During their hibernation, the species is taken care of by the Drantzuli, their Attendants. Havas-Kul was also bombarded by intense radiation which resulted in a radiation-resistant fungus being a key part of the food chain on the planet, which the Hur'q relied on.
Hur'q have the ability to sense magnetic fields and loathe anti-gravity environments. They are able to learn while hibernating, resulting that when they emerge from their hibernation cycle they do so with a thousand years of advancement, which manifests as fundamentally different technological levels on Havas-Kul.
Hur'q use morphogenic crystals to manipulate electromagnetic fields, which they use to drive their technology and interact with it. This includes systems as varied as life support, doors, and the central computer. Due to the Hur'q originally being a peaceful species, their interstellar vessels were resource harvesters, cargo haulers, and science vessels. They have since been modified into warships, that are able to go toe-to-toe with the warships of any other species.
Until 410 CE, Hur'q starships were unarmed. At the time, the Hur'q were a peaceful culture and their ships were, despite being unarmed, more advanced than those of other cultures from that era known to the Khitomer Alliance. Records of schematics were discovered by the USS Defiant crew in the year 2410. (STO - Gamma Quadrant mission: "Tenebris Torquent")