Larger, sentient, insect species were generally referred to as insectoids. Some insectoids evolve to become almost humanoid, with some insectoid species being bipedal.
Insectoid races and cultures
|This article or subsection has an associated category.||Insectoid races and cultures|
The Tholians were somewhat reminiscent of insects and were famous for their silk, something which many insects could produce. If Tholians were a form of insect their crystalline structure was vastly different to any other insect species. The parasites also bore some resemblance to insects however they were in-fact genetically modified Trill symbionts, but did enjoy eating insects, as did the Ferengi and many other species. (ENT episode: "In a Mirror, Darkly"; DS9 novel: Trill: Unjoined)
The Borg, whilst not being insects (though presumably some insectoid species have been assimilated) seem to have a similar command structure to many insect societies with the Queen ruling over the drones which make up the collective, in the same way a queen bee or ant leads a hive or nest. (TNG movie: First Contact; et al.)