Judaism is a human religion, one of the first monotheistic faiths, and one of the oldest religious traditions still practiced in modern times. Jewish traditions constitute a major part of the foundation of other human religions, such as Christianity and Islam.
The Jewish people were persecuted for many centuries, most horrifically in Germany under the rule of Adolf Hitler. (DS9 novel: Warchild) The Nazi campaigns against Europe's Jews were part of the holographic program used by the Hirogen after capturing the USS Voyager in 2374, in an effort to better understand their human prey. (VOY episode: "The Killing Game, Part I")
Professor Jeremy Grayson, a Human ancestor of Spock, identified himself as "an honorary Jew" by marriage. Regardless, he honored Jewish tradition following his wife's death in 2044. (TOS novel: Strangers from the Sky)
Gold's wife, Rabbi Rachel Gilman, ministered to the Jewish faithful in New York City in the mid and late 24th century. In 2376, she officiated at the first Klingon-Jewish wedding, melding elements of both cultures in the ceremony. (SCE eBooks: The Belly of the Beast, Creative Couplings, Book 2)