The Koltaari are a humanoid race native to Koltaari. They have green skin similar to the Orions, and eyes with large golden irises and vertical almond-shaped pupils. Most Koltaari have blonde hair which they choose to wear long. Koltaari clothing is typically bright colored and in the form of a tunic.

As of 2311, they were a technological, but prewarp civilization, and they were previously unaware of the existence of extra-terrestrial life. They did not have the technology nor the interest in harvesting the dilithium, pergium, cormaline, or bilitrium resources of their planet, and they were also not able to create a dampening field. They did however posses blue egg-shaped vehicles capable of hovering. There were two billion Koltaari residing on planet Koltaari in 2311.

In the same year, the Romulans briefly occupied Koltaari to use the planets' resources for an imminent war with the Federation. They also had set up a dampening field on the planet, which attracted the USS Enterprise-B as the Koltaari did not posses the technology to create one. The invasion caused shock among the Koltaari, and the Romulans used them as slave labor in order to mine the resources. Later that year, following the Tomed Incident, the Romulans evacuated the planet and the Koltaari began receiving Federation aid. (ST - The Lost Era novel: Serpents Among the Ruins)

Tomalak had met several Koltaari prior to 2381. (ST - Typhon Pact novel: Rough Beasts of Empire)

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