Mao Tse-Tung (December 26, 1893 – September 9, 1976), also known as Chairman Mao, was a Chinese communist revolutionary and politician who lived during the 19th and 20th centuries. He was the leader of China during the Earth Cold War, specifically from 1949 until his death in 1976.
Mao Tse-Tung People's Collective University was named after him. Changming "Charles" Weng earned doctorates in physics and chemistry from the university in 1958. (TOS - Star Trek: Assignment: Earth comic: "Brighter Than a Thousand Suns")
In February 1972, Chairman Mao met with U.S. President Richard Nixon in Beijing. Given Nixon's staunch anti-communism since the beginning of his political career, he could visit China and meet its leader without being perceived as being "soft" on the nation. This incident gave rise to the political metaphor: "Only Nixon could go to China." (Star Trek VI: The Undiscovered Country)
Generally unknown at the time of Mao and Nixon's meeting was the fact that Chinese and Soviet agents planned to replace the President during his visit to Beijing with a cosmetically-altered agent from Soviet Georgia. Though agents Gary Seven and Roberta Lincoln attempted to stop the switch, Nixon and his impostor ultimately came face-to-face, and one killed the other. It was unclear which survived, but Seven used his servo to ensure the remaining Nixon believed that he was the real Nixon, with no memory of the Communist plot. (TOS - Star Trek: Assignment Earth comic: "Too Many Presidents")