A map is a symbolic depiction of elements of relations between spaces, including objects or regions. They can be made on static medium - such as paper, or can be dynamic and interactive.
The science of stellar cartography was involved with mapping out the positions of space, stars, and other astronomical objects. (TNG episodes: "Schisms", "Lessons"). This task was difficult considering that astronomical objects were constantly in motion, and at different rates. (TNG reference: Star Trek: The Next Generation Technical Manual)
A species map described the relationship between life forms. On some planets species maps were used to describe food chains. Kelpia was noted for not having a food chain, but a binary species map instead consisting of predator and prey. Kelpiens fell on the prey side of that particular species map. (DSC episode: "The Vulcan Hello")