Tracing its origins back to the 1st century human religious figure Jesus Christ, the Catholic Church played a major role in Earth's history over the centuries. Headquarted in Vatican City within the city of Rome, Italy, the church was led by the Pope.
The Catholic church still existed on Earth as recently as the early 24th century. As a young boy growing up in Ireland Miles O'Brien attended a Catholic church led by Father Fitzpatrick. (DS9 novelization: Trials and Tribble-ations)