The Saurians were best known for Saurian brandy, one of the most popular and infamous alcoholic drinks in known space. (DS9 short story: "Second star to the right...") Saurian brandy was even exported to Romulan territory. (TNG novel: The Genesis Wave, Book One)
Saurians are the product of their world's environment. Sauria's gravity is a fifth above that of Earth. Toxic gases and unpredictable shifts in temperature caused by the planet's hot climate and active vulcanism caused the Saurians to develop as a robust race, capable of surviving in environments that would be fatal to most other humanoids. This intense weather also caused the Saurians to become a nocturnal race, giving them a weakness to bright light, forcing them to wear goggles over their eyes when in areas illuminated above a low level.
Saurians had skin of red, brown, grey or green, and large bulging eyes. Saurians also possessed a second set of eyelids which offered infrared vision. (VAN novel: Reap the Whirlwind; TNG novels: A Time to Kill, Greater Than the Sum) In 2163 the normal color for Saurian skin was a pinkish or green-brownish color, however the Basileus of M'Tezir as well as several of his guards had a more purplish colored hide. (ENT - Rise of the Federation novel: A Choice of Futures)
The bulging eyes, protruding snout, and mouth shape of Saurian gave the species a perpetual look of surprised amusement and the majority of Saurians cheerful and accessible.
They were comfortable moving underwater and had adapted to tropical rain-forest and swampland. Saurians could also move at speed on their clawed feet, and they also had webbed, clawed hands. Very strong, Saurians could also breathe a wide variety of gases, and were generally difficult to defeat in combat.
The Saurian language consisted of lingual clicks and pops. In the mid 23rd century Federation universal translators still had occasional difficulty with translating Saurian's native speech into Federation Standard. (DSC episode: "An Obol for Charon")
First contact between Humans and Saurians was said to have occurred in 2157 by the ship ECS Silk Road. During said event, Saurian brandy was also shared. Official Federation first contact took place in 2162 by Captain Bryce Shumar of the USS Essex, under the supervision of the Vulcan Soval. (ENT - Rise of the Federation novel: A Choice of Futures)
Between 2157 and 2162, the many nations of Sauria merged until only two remained: the Global League of Lyaksti'kton, made up primarily of the Lyaksti Empire which had been the dominant power on Sauria for the previous three centuries and several less powerful states, and the Kingdom of M'Tezir. Both the Saurian Global League and the Kingdom of M'Tezir placed space stations in orbit of their homeworld; the Global League operated the Tai'sheku while the M'Tezir faction commanded the M'Tezir One.
M'Tezir was a mid-sized kingdom ruled by the Basileus, while the larger Global League run by an Executive Council led by Presider Moxat. While The Basileus of M'Tezir was named Maltuvis in 2162, the Monarchs of M'Tezir were traditionally simply referred to by their Title, Basileus.
The Global League of Lyaksti'kton's capital was a barge located in neutral seas traveling from one League member nation to another in hopes of showing it had turned its back on its Lyaksti Empire past, although the League's barges once belonged to the Lyaksti Royal Court.
A meeting to finalize the trade agreement between Sauria and the United Federation of Planets took place between Federation President Thomas Vanderbilt, Presider Moxat of the Global League, and the Basileus of M'Tezir on Vega colony on April 4, 2163 where the Basileus attempted to get Captain Shumar of the USS Essex to ask President Vanderbilt to provide the Kingdom of M'Tezir with the resources to conquer all of Sauria in exchange for a monopoly in trading for the wealth of rare metals under M'Tezir such as dilithium and trilithium. (ENT - Rise of the Federation novel: A Choice of Futures)
According to at least one individual, there appears to be a fear of creatures that spin webs, but it is unknown if it was a species-wide fear or a fear of just that individual. (ST - Seekers novel: Second Nature)