The Science Council of Luna, also known as the Lunar Council, was the governing body that operated on Earth's Moon. It was formed sometime after Stardate -1/9704.18 when both the United States of America and Japan conducted a joint effort in establishing a permanent base on Luna's surface. Following the Eugenics Wars, the Human homeworld was devastated and many began to feel the need for a united Earth government.
On January 1, 2000, the Science Council of Luna declared independence from both the United States and Japan as well as requested to be considered a United Nations protectorate. The leaders of the Lunar Council knew that the UN was poorly organized and that they were unable to react fast enough to oppose their declaration. Thus, they gave the UN seven days to respond in order to override their act of independence. Whilst the UN was opposed to Luna's actions in becoming an independent nation, their reaction in getting a quorum assembled to vote was ultimately slow, with public opinion as well as media attention forcing Earth's leaders to honor Luna's declaration.
The request was ultimately granted and thus Earth's first interplanetary government was formed with a single nation gradually forming. (FASA RPG module: Star Fleet Intelligence Manual: Agent's Orientation Sourcebook)