The Star Fleet Medical Reference Manual is a reference book showing various anatomys of species (both humanoid and non-humanoid) from the 23rd century, as well as various medical techniques.


A Publication of the Star Fleet Surgeon General.

WARNING: The Surgeon General's medical reference manual is intended as a basic source of medical information for starship crewmembers, and is not an alternative to treatment by a physician. First aid procedures should be used with caution, and only by trained personnel.

Hippocratic Oath

The first thing any physician should know is the Hippocratic Oath, created by Hippocrates (460-370 B.C.) cited as the "Father of Terran Medicine."


An essay on the "Historical Trends in Medicine" by John Gill, Ph.D. explains about how surgeons have been on ships created by humans since they first ships were built. And that how those surgeons have written books on "naval medical practices," such as the first such one on Earth: "The Surgeon's Mate" by John Woodall in 1617 or "The Starship's Medical Chest and First Aid in Space" published in 2105.


A timeline of important medical discoveries, failures, and plagues that have affected various important planets, starting with the Great Plague ("skagh maug") on Vulcan that killed thousands, and continuing through to the present "Federation Era." The timeline ends c. 2260.

Various dates and historic information is of course later contradicted, by both reality and future Star Trek series'. One example is that the founding date of the United Federation of Planets is listed as in 2125, instead of 2161.
See also: T'Laan.


A "Periodic table of the Elements (Fifth Interstellar Geophysical conference standard)" lists the elements, 1 (Hydrogen) to 129 (Tricobalt), and 139 (Kironide) and 140 (Corbomite).

Interestingly, Kirk seemed to imply that Corbomite was a fictional material he made up - but it is listed as being discovered in 2262 at Starbase 27.

Followed by a list of all the elements, their symbol, atomic weight (by mass number of most stable isotope), atomic weight, place of discovery, and date of discovery. (If humans discovered it prior to first contact, that place and date is given.) All dates are by Earth calendar, unless specially marked using the Vulcan calendar.

  • Radiation



Life Sciences

  • Vulcan Physiology

Humanoid Anatomy

Average weight: 70 kilos (male)
45 kilos (female)
Blood pressure: 160/110 (male)
180/120 (female)
Homo indi physiology

Andorian internal anatomy

Insectoid biped (Homo indi)

Andorians are a blue-skinned humanoid species, average height: 2.3 meters (male) 1.8 meters (female). They have a life expectancy of 129 years (male) 134 years (female).

Their eyes are unusual in that they do not process the whole spectrum of light, and must be used in unison with their antennae. Andorians vision is called "quadroscopic," and is limited to tones of gray. Their auditory receptors (in their antennae) are more advanced then many other humanoids, capable of distinguishing independent sounds from a crowd. Also, to better focus their senses, Andorians will lean their head down towards a person their listening to, to better focus their monodirectional antennae.

Here, the Andorians are portrayed as not having ears. This is based on the fact that that theantennae were presumed as the basic audio sensor, and that throughout their TOS appearances their thick white hair covered where humanoid eras--or the ars of the actors portrayin gthem--would have been.) The first prominently displayed Andorian with ears was the Andorian Federation Councilor from Star Trek IV: The Voyage Home, produced 9 years later.
Also later contradicted is the fact that Andorians have non-moving antennae. Clearly shown in Star Trek: Enterprise, it was mentioned that they could "point their antennae" at people in DS9: "The Sound of Her Voice."
Average weight: 200 kilos (male)
100 kilos (female)
Blood pressure: 80/50 (male)
Homo lacertae physiology

Gorn internal anatomy

Reptiloid biped (Homo lacertae)

The Gorn are a green reptilian humanoid species, average height: 2 meters (male) 1.4 meters (female). They have a life expectancy of 55 years (male) 21 years (female).

Being cold blooded, they require ambient warmth and prefer to live in tropical climates. Their respiration system is less advanced then most, and provides just enough oxygen to the body to remain functioning. One internal source of temperature is when a female Gorn gives birth: Gorn lay eggs, which hatch while still inside the oviduct (appearing to be live birth.) Their eyes is covered in thousands of facets, each with its own protective lid.

Average weight: 70 kilos (male)
60 kilos (female)
Blood pressure: 120/80
Hominid biped (Homo sol)

Humans are a red-blooded "humanoid" species (originators of the name) with average heights of: 1.7 meters (male) 1.5 meters (female). They have a life expectancy of 115 years (male) 122 years (female).

Information on Human anatomy is abundant, and as such isn't included in this particular manual. Texts regarding humans is available at your local Star Fleet Supply Center for merely 5 credits. Or, for more information, you are advised to contact:

Star Fleet Surgeon General
Federation Institute of Medicine
1 Zefram Cochrane Plaza, New York City
Earth - Sol System - United Federation of Planets
According to the literature, within the next 300 years, the scientific nomenclature for a human will change from 'Homo sapiens' to Homo sol, referencing the home star of the species.
Average weight: 80 kilos (male)
50 kilos (female)
Blood pressure: 130/80
Homo sagittarii physiology

Klingon-augment internal anatomy

Klingonoid biped (Homo sagittarii)

Klingons are a well known "humanoid" species famous for their use of bio-engineering by their government to selectively breed out the impure in their species, so only the best survive. They have an average heights of: 1.9 meters (male) 1.7 meters (female). They have a life expectancy of 82 years (male) 69 years (female).

Their single stomach has two "duodenum," which increase digestive flow efficiency to their small intestines. Special notice is given to their small intestine, and physicians should be careful: as their unique design is "stairway-like levels," which first twist downward, then upward again into the large intestine. The higher body temperature in Klingons are caused by their second liver.

Although before Star Trek: The Motion Picture, and there-by the first appearance of Klingon forehead ridges, the book still predicts that Klingons have undergone some form of genetic engineering as explained in the Star Trek: Enterprise episodes "Affliction" and "Divergence."
However, the book fails to predict the numerous redundant systems (or "brak'lul") explained in TNG's "Ethics." Although, they are shown to have a redundant liver, more variety than most anatomies in the book.
Tellarite anatomy
Average weight: 80 kilos (male)
150 kilos (female)
Blood pressure: 160/110 (male)
180/120 (female)
Homo cygni physiology

Tellarite internal anatomy

Artiodactyloid biped (Homo cygni)

Tellarites are a vaguely pig-like humanoid species, known to share several characteristics with the non-sentient lifeform. They have an average heights of: 1.8 meters (male) 2.2 meters (female). They have a life expectancy of 87 years (male) 93 years (female).

Tellarites legs end in two-toed feet with hooves, and their femur is notable for missing its of the third tochanter, and that their fibula is vestigial. Their digestive system is designed for plants, and as such they have two stomachs which utilize bacteria to break down the food before entering their single intestine. They often have multiple births, and their sense of smell and hearing is advanced for a humanoid, while their eyesight is sub par.

The book seems to imply that Tellarites are herbivores, and that their stomachs cannot digest meat. But in Enterprise we learn that canines are a delicacy on Tellar Prime. Also, although no close up has been specifically focused on the legs or feet of Tellarites, the series' do not seem to support the "hoofed, pig-like feet" theory used here.
Vulcanoid biped (Homo eridani)

Vulcans are a green-blooded humanoid species with average heights of: 2.0 meters (male) 1.7 meters (female). They have a life expectancy of 250 years.

Only minor variations exist between the vulcanoid species, such as the Rigelians of Rigel V, and the Romulans. For more information on the Vulcans, refer to the "Vulcan Physiology" portion of this manual.

Brain Development 
Cranial Development 
Heart Development 

  • Cell structure
  • Humanoid Psychology

Intelligent Aliens



  • Psionics
  • Chiropractic

First Aid

  • Artificial Ventilation
  • Carry Techniques
    • Three-man lift
    • Chair carry
    • Four-handed seat
    • Two-handed seat
    • Pulling the victim
    • Lifting & supporting the victim
  • Classification of Burns
  • Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (C.P.R.)
  • Dislocation of the Superior Cortex
  • Mouth-to-mouth Resuscitation
  • Foreign Body Obstruction of the Airway
  • Mugato Bite
  • Opening the Mouth
  • Vulcan Cardiac Arrest


  • Medical tricorder
  • Medikit
  • Medipouch
  • Sickbay Diagnostic Scanner
  • Spray Hypo


  • Star Trek: Deep Space Nine used several of the images from the "Intelligent Aliens" and "Parasites" chapter on an LCARS graphic in the back of the school room, making the internal physiology shown in the book at least partially canon. These included the Denebian slime devils, Regulan bloodworms, Tribbles, Excalbians, the Horta, Neural parasites and Korob's and Sylvia's species.
  • This is not the first example of Star Trek using the non-canon (and sometimes, not even authorized) reference books in the television series': Some of the early Star Trek movies used images from the Star Fleet Technical Manual by Franz Joseph. Also, the RPG reference book "Among the Clans" was used by the writing staff of Star Trek: Enterprise when creating the ushaan, as well as making Andoria a frozen planet.
  • Other publications have utilized images from the book as well (although by then they technically had been made canon by DS9.) Star Trek: The Magazine featured several animal species in an issue, and included the internal anatomy of the Tribble. Star Trek: The Starfleet Survival Guide features a diagram of the Denebian slime devil that first appeared in this book.


Star Fleet Medical Reference Manual article at Memory Alpha, the wiki for canon Star Trek.

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