Though appearing as a primitive tablet, the Stone of Gol was in fact an advanced psionic weapon that amplified telepathic energies. This made it capable of killing others by using the violent thoughts and emotions of others against them which results in the targets death. This made it a deadly weapon during the time of its creation as the early Vulcans were incapable of controlling their emotions.
During the Time of Awakening, Surak kept it a temple and used it as bait to lure Resistance leaders Zhat and Rihan. Zhat attempted to use the weapon against Surak but it fired on her. The time traveler, Spock from 2270, took it with him as they returned Rihan's faction. He later returned it to Surak. Following Spock's mind meld with Surak, the Stone was broken into three pieces.(TOS - Year Five - Experienced in Loss comics: "Issue 20", "Issue 21")
However, the teachings of logic and peace made by Surak made the weapon useless as the enemy would simply need to empty their mind of violent thought. The weapons use would provoke no response on the target. After the people of Vulcan accepted the belief of cthia, the Stone of Gol was dismantled secretly but myth spoke that it was destroyed by the Vulcan gods. It was then scattered across many worlds in space.
After this time, the knowledge of the Stone of Gol would pass into myth. Despite this, the Vulcan Isolationist Movement learnt of the ancient weapon and attempted to reassemble it for their own use. In 2369, they hired the mercenary Arctus Baran in rediscovering the components, which the Isolationist Movement had only a single piece.
After the rediscovery of the components, T'Paal, an agent of the isolationist movement, infiltrated the group while posing as a Romulan mercenary known as Tallera. She stole the resonator and reassembled it in the T'Karath Sanctuary where she attempted to use it on Captain Jean-Luc Picard and members of his crew. However, the Starfleet captain interpreted the tablet and learnt its secrets which allowed them to survive the attack by the weapon through concentrating on not thinking violent thoughts.
The Stone of Gol was taken into custody by the Vulcan people. V'Shar head Satok assured Picard that all three component pieces would be destroyed. Even though it would have offered fascinating insights into Vulcan history, Picard agreed that weapon was simply too dangerous to leave intact. (TNG episode: "Gambit")