Subspace communication is the primary form of communication, used by most warp capable species across the galaxy. Subspace communications are dispatched through subspace in excess of warp factor +9.9999, and can thus, travel incredible distances. (ST reference: The Star Trek Encyclopedia)

Subspace communication required the technology of the transtator. (TOS comic: "Prisoners")

At close range to a sender of a subspace communication, real-time communication is possible, but outside of that range, their is a time lag depending on how distant the receiver is to the sender. This can be countered with the deployment of subspace relay buoys that act as a booster to subspace messages and allow better communication. (VOY episode: "Message in a Bottle")

An unusual hybrid starship encountered by the USS Enterprise-D in 2370 was remote controlled via subspace signals. (TNG comic: "Strategy")

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