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A supernova is a type of nova, a large explosion of a star that sometimes occurs when a star reaches the end of its life cycle, and collapses under its own gravity. Supernovae, in particular, occur when the large masses of supergiant stars reach critical levels. (CCG set: Premiere)

Just prior to going supernova, a star will produce gamma radiation and severe gravitational field fluctuations. (ST reference: Spaceflight Chronology)

During a supernova, an explosion that ejects large amounts of gas and solid matter with a considerable amount of energy occurs, sometimes leaving a remnant of a neutron star or black hole within a nebula of ejected stellar mass. Supernovae were also known to generate cosmic storms. (TOS comic: "Life Form Nonexistent")

Circa 4400 BC, radiation from an ancient supernova reached Bwuja. It boiled the planet's oceans and incinerated its surface. (TOS comic: "The World Beneath the Waves")

The 22nd century's largest recorded supernova, Phi Puma, created a deadly shock wave that that triggered a chain reaction nova in the star of Bayard's Planet 38 years later. (ST reference: Spaceflight Chronology)

The wave of ejected radiation from 2260s supernova like Beta Niobe and Minara propagated outward at light speed and could threaten nearby systems. The planet Verzhik was badly damaged by such a blast in 2279. Starfleet worked to deflect the path of this radiation from inhabited systems, particularly in the Beta Niobe sector. (TOS - Mere Anarchy eBook: The Darkness Drops Again)

When traveling into the past, supernovae from remote galaxies could be utilized to determine an exact date, based measurements of their faintness and distance. Data employed such a method when the USS Enterprise-D followed the Goddard through a gravity slingshot around the Arhennius star to determine they had arrived in the past within two weeks before or after of the moment James T. Kirk was lost saving the USS Enterprise-B. (Star Trek novel: Engines of Destiny)

In the alternate War of the Prophets timeline, Bajor was destroyed by a supernova when the Grigari used a trilithium pulse against B'hava'el. (DS9 - Millennium novel: Inferno)

Notable supernovae

Unnamed supernovae

In a distant corner of the galaxy, an unnamed supergiant star went supernova around the year 2230, leaving a neutron star remnant. At roughly the same time, Spock was born many light-years distant, on the planet Vulcan. (TOS novelization: Star Trek)

External links