The Supreme Court of the United Federation of Planets was the highest judicial body in the United Federation of Planets, holding the final judicial authority over Federation laws.

In 2373, Richard Bashir declared that he would challenge the Federation's laws against genetic engineering and would go all the way to the Federation Supreme Court if he had to. (DS9 episode: "Doctor Bashir, I Presume")

This apparently contradicts Articles of the Federation, in which the Federation Judiciary Council is described as being the highest legal authority in the Federation. Possible explanations include the idea that the Judiciary Council may be the same body as the Supreme Court, that the Supreme Court's rulings may be appealed to the Judiciary Council, that the Judiciary Council was established sometime after 2373, or that precedent-setting cases are sometimes handed to the Judiciary Council by the Supreme Court. Meanwhile, the FASA RPG module: The Federation states that the Federation Tribunal is the highest court. As that is described as similar to an old Earth Supreme Court, it seems likely the Tribunal was replaced by the Federation Supreme Court.

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