Survival Training was a type of training undertaken by United Earth Starfleet, Military Assault Command Organization, and Federation Starfleet personnel. Such training was undertaken to ensure that individuals could survive in hostile environments for an extended period of time.
Such training usually involved placing personnel in an inhospitable enviornment - such as the surface of a moon, the Australian Outback, or the American Southwest.
Jonathan Archer, Charles Tucker III, and A.G. Robinson all completed their survival training in the Australian Outback. (ENT episodes: "First Flight", "Harbinger") MACO Major Joss Hayes underwent survival training on the surface of the moon as part of his MACO training. (ENT episode: "Harbinger") Harry Kim underwent his survival training in the American southwest during his time at Starfleet Academy.(VOY novel: Pathways)
Such training was noted for being particularly physically demanding. While pursuing former Governor Adrian Kodos through the mountains near New Anchorage, Ensign Terri Bridges noted to Lieutenant Commander Gabriel Lorca that she hadn't been through anything that physically demanding since her survival training. (DSC novel: Drastic Measures)