Spoiler warning: Plot and/or ending details follow.
The Taurean anthropoids were a primitive civilization of humanoids that lived on planet Beta Tauri II (Taurus II). Identified as anthropoids of the order 480-G, these savage creatures lived on their remote homeworld, located in the Murasaki 312 effect.
Culture and makeup
The Taureans possessed somewhat of a loose pack association, without having yet attained the more refined grouping of a tribal culture. With weapons and tools made only of stone and leather, including Folsom point spears and animal-hide shields, the Taureans were a textbook example of a stone age culture. (TOS episode & Star Trek 10 novelization: The Galileo Seven; TOS - The Galileo Seven comics: "Part 1", "Part 2")
After the Federation shuttlecraft Galileo, under the command of Spock, crashed on Beta Tauri II in the year 2267, seven crewmembers were attacked by the Taureans. Two of the Starfleet personnel stranded on the surface (Latimer and Gaetano) were killed, and another landing party searching for the shuttle took casualties as well, with team leader Lieutenant Kelowitz reporting Ensign O'Neill killed and Lieutenant Immanura injured.
Spock had Scotty begin repairs, and before long the chief engineer had devised a workable plan for getting the shuttle airborne. After some tense moments figuring the weight of the surviving crew, and a defense of electricity against anthropoids attempting to breach the shuttle, several phasers provided energy needed for battery power. (TOS episode & Star Trek 10 novelization: The Galileo Seven)
In an alternate reality, the Galileo was similarly commanded by Spock, and crashed on Taurus II, this time in 2258. In this reality, most of the same seven crewmembers were attacked by the Taureans. Latimer was killed by a spear and was the only person killed in this version of the crash.
Montgomery Scott made repairs using phasers from charge, electrifying attacking Taureans and getting the shuttle airborne, to rendezvous with Lieutenant Nyota Uhura's rescue shuttle. (TOS - The Galileo Seven comics: "Part 1", "Part 2")