Tuvan Syndrome is a neurological condition that affects Vulcanoid species such as Vulcans, Romulans and Rigelians. It is degenerative and uncurable as of 2375. In the United Federation of Planets, several studies on Vulcans who were affected by the disease were undertaken. Early symptoms of Tuvan Syndrome include displaced weakness of facial muscles, irregular and displaced eyelids. The disease can be accelerated by exposure to nadion radiation.

Praetor of the Romulan Star Empire D'deridex was known to have suffered from the illness during the later stages of his life in the mid-22nd century. In 2155, during the Earth-Romulan War, he was known to have made irrational decisions leading to a number of setbacks in the war against the Coalition of Planets. Admiral Valdore even noted that the Praetor's actions seemed to be insane to him. (ENT novel: Beneath the Raptor's Wing)

Tuvan Syndrome ran in the family of Tal Shiar Chairman Koval. By 2360, Koval himself knew he might one day be stricken with the disease. (ST - The Lost Era novel: Catalyst of Sorrows)

Ravent developed Tuvan Syndrome later in her life, progressively deteriorating before passing away in 2371. (ST - Typhon Pact novels: Rough Beasts of Empire, Plagues of Night)

In 2375, Section 31's Luther Sloan told Doctor Julian Bashir that Koval had contracted the disease and asked the Doctor to make a visual diagnosis. (DS9 episode: "Inter Arma Enim Silent Leges")

By 2377, Koval's Tuvan Syndrome had progressed to the point that he was seriously ill. (ST - Vulcan's Soul novel: Epiphany)

In Catalyst of Sorrows, the disease is referred to as "Tuvan's Syndrome", suggesting Tuvan was the first individual to suffer from it, or was the person who first diagnosed it.

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