Vega was first colonised by peoples from Delta III, and around a century later also hosted a smaller Human colony. When the Human colonists first arrived on Vega, many contracted Vegan choriomeningitis, a deadly disease created by the ancient extinct natives of the planet. Unfortunately, the disease was not detected before colonists spread it to other worlds, resulting in a widespread outbreak. A vaccine was quickly developed upon its discovery. (ST reference: The Worlds of the Federation)
By the mid-22nd century Vega colony formed one point of a triangular trade route operated by the Earth Cargo Service between Vega, Earth and Draylax. Travis Mayweather was born on the ECS Horizon halfway between Draylax and Vega colony. (ST reference: Star Charts; ENT episode: "Fortunate Son")
In 2152, Admiral Forrest speculated a small-craft, discovered by Enterprise (NX-01), may have been launched from Vega colony. The vessel was later discovered to have been a timeship originating from the 31st century. (ENT episode: "Future Tense")
In 2254, the USS Enterprise travelled to Vega colony to make use of the medical facilities there to treat casualties from the coup on Rigel VII. (TOS episode: "The Cage"; EV comic: "Nor Iron Bars a Cage")
The colony came under attack by the Borg in early 2409, two weeks after the Tal Shiar/Elachi assault on Virinat. Casualties to both the civilian population and Starfleet responders were heavy and included Captain Va'Kel Shon's wife and children. (STO missions: "A Day on the Farm", "Communication Breakdown", "Assimilation of the Innocent"; STO - Star Trek Magazine short story: "Mirror Image")
In another timeline, where Terra Prime succeeded in creating an isolationist Earth, Vega Colony was a member of the United Earth’s commonwealth. It sat on the outskirts of Earth’s territory, not far from the border with the Interstellar Coalition, a union of Vulcans, Andorians, Tellarites, and Denobulans.
In 2264, the UESS Enterprise, under the command of Captain Christopher Pike, was responding to a twenty-nine year old distress signal from the SS Columbia, when it was ambushed by three Orion vessels hidden in the Robinson Nebula. The Orion pirates were driven off by the V'Lar, an Interstellar Coalition ship, but not before the Enterprise suffered significant damage. The Enterprise eventually returned to Vega Colony, at Warp 2, for repairs. (Myriad Universes novel: A Less Perfect Union)
- The Worlds of the Federation specifies the outbreak of Vegan choriomeningitis after the settlement of the planet spread to other Federation worlds, and that the Human colony was a Federation effort. However this is somewhat incompatible with Star Trek: Enterprise which established the colony's existence earlier than the foundation of the Federation.