For the mirror universe counterpart, see Vulcan (planet) (mirror).

Vulcan (also known as Vulcan/Vulcanis A II, Nevasa II or 40 Eridani A II) is a planet, the second planet in the 40 Eridani star system, in orbit of the star 40 Eridani A. A class M desert planet, Vulcan is inhabited by the Vulcan civilization, who refer to their world as T'Khasi, Minshara or Ti-Valka'ain. As the Vulcan homeworld Vulcan is the capital planet of the Confederacy of Vulcan, and a founding world in both the Coalition of Planets and United Federation of Planets. (Last Unicorn RPG modules: The Way of Kolinahr, Planets of the UFP; Decipher RPG module: Aliens; ST references: Star Charts, The Worlds of the Federation; ENT novel: Kobayashi Maru)

This world is known as vulqan to speakers of Klingonese. (ST reference: The Klingon Dictionary)

Astrometrics[edit | edit source]

The Vulcan star system

Vulcan orbits 40 Eridani A, known as Nevasa to the Vulcans, the primary orange K class star in the trinary Vulcan system. The other two stars in the system, 40 Eridani B and C, blue and red dwarfs respectively, co-orbited the A star at some distance and were not immediately visible in the Vulcan sky. (ST references: The Worlds of the Federation, Star Charts; TOS - Vulcan's Soul novel: Exodus; Decipher RPG module: Aliens)

The ST reference: Star Trek Maps identified the system's first world as the planet Vulcan itself, omitting all references to additional planets beside Vulcan's sister world. While most other licensed sources mention Vulcan as the second planet, some (such as FASA RPG module: The Federation) refer to it as the third world, although this is an understandable notation as Vulcan is locked in orbit with third planet T'Khut). The ST reference: Spaceflight Chronology mentions Vulcan as the third planet, but contradicts canon in stating that Vulcan is located at Epsilon Eridani. Likewise, the Star Trek Online website's defunct Points of Interest section stated that Vulcan is located in the Sirius system, though STO itself uses the 40 Eridani location. All other sources since ST reference: Star Fleet Technical Manual agree that 40 Eri is the system.

Vulcan's orbital period (year) is 203 days long. [citation needed] According to another source, Vulcan has an orbital radius of 0.56 AU, giving it a period of 177.6 standard days. However, the Vulcan calendar has set the Vulcan year to be about 1.5 times that, or 266.4 standard days. (DTI novel: Watching the Clock)

Vulcan vicinity.

Vulcan has no moon, but did have a number of nearby planets, most notably T'Khut, with which it shares an orbit around a common center of gravity; the two worlds were a mere 149,895.3579 kilometers apart, and T'Khut would fill the sky of the single hemisphere of Vulcan it was visible from due to the planets being tidally locked. (TOS episode: "The Man Trap"; ST reference: The Worlds of the Federation; TOS novel: Sarek)

T'Khut itself does have a moon, called T'Rukhemai, home of the Vulcanis Lunar Colony. (TOS novel: Sarek; VOY episode: "Unimatrix Zero"; VOY novel: Pathways)

Also passing near enough in its orbit that Vulcan can be clearly seen in the sky was the icy planet Delta Vega. (TOS movie: Star Trek; TOS comic: "Nero, Number Four")

Vulcan on the explored galaxy map.

Vulcan was noted on star charts of the galaxy's explored regions in the 23rd and 24th centuries, in an area of the projection also containing Sirius, Altair VI and Aldeberan. (TOS movie: The Undiscovered Country, TNG episodes: "Conspiracy", "The Measure of a Man", "The Emissary", "The Mind's Eye", "The Game", DS9 episodes: "In the Hands of the Prophets", "Cardassians")

Environment[edit | edit source]

Vulcan's Forge, circa 2137

Vulcan is a harsh, desert planet with barely a quarter of its surface area containing water. It possesses a thin atmosphere and high gravity (1.4 G). (Decipher RPG module: Aliens) Furthermore, solar radiation is noted to be much higher when compared to other M-class planets such as Earth. (TOS novel: Captain's Glory)

Vulcan has three primary continents called Na'nam, Han-shir and Xir'tan. The first are enormous land masses that were divided into various provinces while the third was an island somewhat larger than the Earth continent of Australia. (Last Unicorn RPG module: The Way of Kolinahr: The Vulcans) Due to the strong tidal forces brought about by the planet's interaction with T'Khut Vulcan was highly volcanically active. This generates a number of impressive lava spectacles, such as the Fire Plains. (ST - New Worlds, New Civilizations short story: "Tempered by the Forge"; ENT episode: "Home") Around four to five billion years ago, Vulcan was a highly geologically active environment. (TOS novel: Firestorm)

Furthermore, there are frequent energy discharges in the air that shimmered in the red sky in a region near the Gateway where there was an area that had a distorted magnetic field as a result of Vulcan's ancient atomic wars. This serves as a form of third magnetic pole that disrupted most electrical as well as transtator currents in the region that are instead absorbed energy leak out into the wind. This is responsible for creating the spectacular lightning displays that are often seen in the clouds of sand. (TOS novel: Captain's Glory)

Vulcan's geology and desert environment produce starkly up-thrust craggy and inhospitable mountains, with jagged and steep formations cut out by wind swept sand. (Decipher RPG modules: Aliens, Worlds)

Vulcan maintains the oxygen in its atmosphere by deriving phytoplankton from its oceans, which existed as microscopic organisms that make up 90% of all planetary oxygenation processes, including those of Earth. Despite being a desert planet and not having a suitable source of oxygen in viable plant-life throughout most of their year, there is a sufficient amount of oxygenation occurring within the environment from the microbic water. [citation needed]

History[edit | edit source]

Vulcan's surface.

See main article Vulcan history.

Though a dry desert occupied 96% of the planet's surface by the 23rd century, fossil records indicated that early Vulcan possessed 90% water along with a few islands with nothing but a hot sea present on the planet. Thousands of years later, when the proto-Vulcans developed and began to form tribes, 40 Eridani A erupt a massive solar flare that scorched the planet's surface; resulting in many native creatures dying, those which survived taking shelter in caves or other safe places on the opposite end of the planet. (TOS novel: Spock's World)

Early in the Dominion War, Benjamin Sisko expressed his concerns to Admiral Zach Warner that the Dominion would eventually be able to invade Vulcan if Starfleet kept up its defense posture. The routes between Vulcan and Earth and Alpha Centauri were critical to the Federation. (DS9 novelizations: Call to Arms..., ...Sacrifice of Angels) The concerns for Vulcan lasted throughout the year, with fighting near the Vulcan border. Later, the fall of Betazed made the possibility of an invasion of Vulcan very likely. (DS9 episodes: "Favor the Bold", "In the Pale Moonlight", "The Reckoning")

During the Borg Invasion of 2381, several Borg cubes moved to attack Vulcan. They managed to begin an orbital bombardment which inflicted severe damage to notable locations on the planet, including the Vulcan's Forge. However, the planet was saved from destruction when former Earth Captain Erika Hernandez managed to influence the collective to attack itself, severely damaging the cubes attacking Vulcan, which were later destroyed by a Starfleet task force including the USS Atlas and USS Prometheus. (ST - Destiny novel: Lost Souls)

In 2468 of a timeline where the Federation chose not to intervene in the fight between the Borg and Cybermen, the Cybermen invaded Vulcan. Using his TARDIS, The Doctor and Jean-Luc Picard from 2368 witnessed these events. (TNG comic: "Assimilation², Issue 5")

The destruction of Vulcan

In the alternate timeline created by Nero's temporal incursion, Vulcan was destroyed in the year 2258. The planet was obliterated by an artificial singularity created when Nero launched a red matter device into the planet's core. Of a population of 6 billion, approximately ten thousand escaped the devastation, and though their cultural legacy would survive, the Vulcan people became an endangered species. (TOS movie & novelization: Star Trek)

Geography[edit | edit source]

The Decipher RPG module: Worlds and an early book in the Last Unicorn RPG ([citation needed]) exhibit some consistency in their depiction of Vulcan geography, while the early The Worlds of the Federation shows a different Vulcan surface, which has much less ocean and more minor lakes.

Continents and provinces[edit | edit source]

Bodies of water[edit | edit source]

Great T'Kala SeaLake YuronStrait of Ha-zenThanar SeaVoroth Sea

Mountains and volcanos[edit | edit source]

Llangon MountainsMount P-TaMount TarhanaMountains of Gol (Mount Seleya) • T'RaanT'RegarT'Riah

Other regions[edit | edit source]

Caves of KolinarCheleb-khorFire PlainsGo'anIshaya plainKendha-YaNal'shinNa'ReeOsana cavernsRaalShival FlatsT'RalorVulcan's Forge (GatewayPlain of BloodWomb of Fire) • Vuldi Gorge

Vulcan settlements[edit | edit source]

Typically, there are no lost civilizations on the planet as new cities were always integrated into the older ones which meant that ruins remained. In addition, the planet's manufacturing and heavy industry has, for centuries, been conducted in the asteroid belt within the system. The only industry that was allowed on the surface were those that neither despoiled the environment nor disturbed its tranquility such as music crafting. (TOS novel: Dwellers in the Crucible)

The Vulcan population was approximately 4.9 billion in the year 2378. (ST reference: Star Charts)

Cities[edit | edit source]

AraKahrDa'kum'ulchaDa'LebFort Aba'kurJaleyiKhir AhlKirK'Lan-neKwil'InorNaweeth CityRh'IahrSanaiKahrShanaiKahrShiGralShi'KahrT'lingSharT'PaalTa'VistarVulcana RegarVulcinis

Other locations[edit | edit source]

Ancients of DaysDiplomatic InstituteHall of Ancient ThoughtHall of VoicesTemple of T'PanitTemple of AmonakTemple of LogicT'Karath SanctuarySarek School of Diplomacy and Ambassadorial StudiesShiKahr AcademyVulcan Science AcademyVulcan Space CentralVulcan Space Institute

Natural History[edit | edit source]

The heat of Vulcan's summer often kills off most vegetation, with plant life only flourishing once the rains come. In times of drought, out in the desert carnivorous plants are able to survive by catching any animal weakened by thirst. (TOS novel: The Vulcan Academy Murders)

Flora[edit | edit source]

Adun cactusChes'lintakChollaCir-cenCrying Plantd'malluFavinitG'tethGal-en-du'unGesperInduku treeIsuke bushKal'taKaranjiKylin'thePel-tar'ukS'gageratShin-Ka-TiSir-soss'imTir-nukVulcan palm treeDeath StarWahmlat

Fauna[edit | edit source]

AylakCh'kariyaFirebirdK'kareeKrovillLanka-garLe-matyaMah-tor-pahlahMyrmidexSa-te kruSand wormSand viperSehlatShatarrShavokhSundwellerTcha'beshehValitVai-sehlat

Alternate timeline[edit | edit source]

In an alternate timeline in which Khan Noonien Singh won the Eugenics Wars and Humanity underwent genetic engineering en masse, the Khanate of Earth conquered Vulcan during the 21st century. The Vulcan government's unconditional surrender was presented to Khan in the rubble of the temple atop of Mount Seleya. The Vulcans remained helots of Humans well into the 24th century. (DS9 - Myriad Universes novel: Seeds of Dissent)

Appendices[edit | edit source]

Connections[edit | edit source]

Sirius sector block
Orion sector Kinjer system (Kinjer Prime) • Lackey system (Lackey III) • Reytan system (Reytan) • Starbase 24 (Starbase 24's system) • Una system (Una II) Beta Quadrant locator logo.
Orion trinary system Stars: Pi-3 Orionis trinary star (Orion A, Orion B, Orion C)
Planets and moons: I. Orion I • III.: Orion III/Orion Prime (Luna Orionis) • HoanThaspa
Risa sector Bomari system (Bomari II) • Donia system (Donia) • Gamma Orionis transwarp conduitImaga system (ImagaImaga II) • Koolhaas system (Koolhaas) • Omar system (Omar) • Tazi system (Tazi)
Risa system Stars and outposts: Epsilon Ceti AEpsilon Ceti B (Granicus binary) • Epsilon Ceti CEpsilon Ceti Outpost Alpha Quadrant locator logo.
Planets: Epsilon Ceti B I (Suam) • B II.: Risa (Inobe) • LowoionRusanej
Vulcan sector Beytan system (Beytan V) • Bhea system (Bhea) • Delta Volanis ClusterKei system (Kei III) • P'Jem system (P'Jem) • Pellme system (Pellme II) • Pico system (Pico) • Wolf 359 system
Vulcan system Stars: 40 Eridani A40 Eridani B40 Eridani C
Planets and moons: I. Ket-Cheleb • II & III.: VulcanT'Khut (T'Rukhemai) • IV. Tel-Alep • V. Kal-Apton • VI. Kir AlepVulcanis VIIDelta Vega
planets visited by the USS Enterprise (NCC-1701) during Captain Kirk's initial five-year mission (2265-2270)
various Aprilia IIICaporyGarrusTriangularis III
2265 EarthDraxis IITallyGamma Alpha VPollux IIStarbase 8 planetSector Vega 6 planetM-155Archernar IVDimorusMandylion VTendar IVMestikoAlpha Ortelina VIIArronus VIIAldebaran IIIDelta Vega IStarbase 12VelluriusEarthEmpyreaGlobular planetNorusJunkyard planetPalnak's planetSantarNova XIIIZeltokKorakTraveler's homeworldDukarOrthooAlgenib II
2266 Crucial-3VultraRobots' planetAngomaMantis planetNuofoStaiVrexBalant planetZargotColtacRigel XIIAlfa 177M-113Psi 2000Tlaoli IVSkurSelkyeTaragonAlpha 332Ynobe IIEcnalRayloNorigaAlpha Proxima IIArgylusOminnusEarthK-GSeggorForniaAngiraBeta IINeesanKujalLunaBwujaFayoHerculaEarthKibo/NdoraNrakaAlpha 23-COordonMobitaJodarrQuodarZartaFloe IMetamorphaInicrustMortiTerrellian IIVoodoo planetRiza homeworldMila XaKrugar III remnantQuaraxusArimaMazdaNumero UnoBeta CarinaeExo III1324-IV7348-IITantalus VMiri's homeworldPlanet QBenecia
2267 Taurus IIMakus IIIXimega IIHydra Epsilon IIIPerseus Arm planetoidYkoTenkaraSalvumGrotusVaranu planetYkoTalos IVTektonRifas-LAmusement Park planetHeitius VIICentaurus VFomalhaut VEmben IIICynur IVTyrtaeus IIGothosBeta VITheta VIIRamedes IIICestus IIIAlvaLazarus's planetGalaxy Zekbran planetCygnet XIVEarthCanaraBeta IIIDraqqanaEminiar VIICeti Alpha VGamma 400VartaxDak-AlphaTimshelOmicron Ceti IIIJanus VI7348-IIChandra IVOrganiaAngrenaYkoEarth Colony IIGatewayEarthDenevaJanvarZentarZettin • "the Frontier" • ModalaLadoGamma XaridianElsinor H-25Starbase 10Beta Mariotia IIIVega IIITondusTekkorCarnakPyris VIIEarthPentam VGamma Canaris NVandros VIINukoleeStyraLurotaOorego IVGiant Brain asteroidOtari IIGatewayIsis IIINot EdenMaaba S'JaCapella IVPollux IVVulcanMestikoNadorTactis IIBeta Nirobi IIPhygma IVOutpost Omega-70Tau Gamma IVM-370Argelius IIMerope IVMalurEulusDonico IIGamma Trianguli VIMasabaLekythosTyrtaeus IIShroud IVHalkaIxtoldeGamma Hydra IVCalydonBelmara IVTuran Tot Narut's planetGamma Canaris NTaunusPlanet 656Beton IIIKwettirSklurrKarrGraktanTharkMorkolPlixesAndriusMuddEarthAneher IIWezonvuNalaingMagna RomaBavaryaNeolithiaMythraRimilliaBabelGamma Canaris NTNC 65813VulcanNisusCertaxNarnel's WorldNGC 667Neural
2268 Fornax IIGamma IITriskelionRudimonArgus XTycho IVCentaurusUsildeTheta VIISigni BetaTautee systemVulcanBeta Canzandia IIIMevinnaSigma Iotia IIXanviaXoxxaInquisitor's planetBeta ReticuliDelta VegaNalogen IVDelta VegaDelta Canaris IVAlnath IIAmmdonArretEkosEeiauoSivaoKahlessOmega IVEarthTheta Kiokis IIElasTroyiusElethiaAlsandKosTau Delta IXAmerindStarbase 14 planetAndru 4/6Tranquility VIIMinos VEarthExo IIIT'nufoMinos VEando 375Wrigley's Pleasure PlanetExo IIITortuga VITaos IVTriacusMarcos XIIWokkle IIICawley IVMakon IIIKalaLowariaDreamers' planetSigma Draconis VIMoauvPomplanceRibol IIMarpapluDireidiMedusaElcidar Beta IIIMinara IIOctavius IVBeta CabriniPegasus IVCareta VBeta XII-APlatoniusIzellEarthScalosM-317Beta Aurigae IIISanoora host planetRhinegeltKalandan outpostBrellian IVPrastorDistrelTttnicktttnorAriannusCheronElba IISanctuaryGideonKolya
2269 Memory AlphaMerak IIArdanaPollux VAvalonBalkos IIINova Atar IIITarnak IIMeta IVVesbiusJanus VIPollux IILeora IVBeta Niobe IIIMygdalus IIIWaasertlaCentaurusRaga's PlanetEdenTheta Tau VHolberg 917GLothorTau Beta IVExcalbiaSarpeidonCamus IIDuwamishEphrata IVSigma Niobe IIGatewayKrasni's FollyVestalanMaltos IVOrganiaKyrosNestaAnomalyAcademyYkoArachnaeBabelEpsilon Delta IVHeartlandMemory PrimeTalin IVWeb of WorldsSyhaar PrimeGatewayMantillesValeriaTaurus IIKinshasaAmusement Park planetMotherlodeMegas-TuTerratinSherman's PlanetVerdaniaThe StrandAarak IIIPhi XIUr homeworldVidenGobi IIIPacificaGralafiLoren VArgoWaycrossDengella IIPerryDelta Gamma IVDetente ITrefolgLloyd Zeta-9Sigma Iotia IIHesperides II'QosCirce VTrellisaneBeta CastelliHeloxBoaco VIJuram VVancadiaChyrellkaVeletus VPatria IPelos
2270 Janus VIPhylos IIVedala asteroidDramiaDramia IIArretLactra VIIBoqu IIDelta Theta IIIPandroBriamosBelarius IVVelat Nol/R-836 IIGelladorn/R-775 IDT-262Belarius IVLotora IIICenotaphVehtora IVN'caiMuldoonCoridan IIIAkladiMuddKubanSaraiStarbase 7 planetStella Mudd's planetMuddTaygeta VOkeanosBeta Omicron Delta IIIYoondriGatewayZeta GibraltarAndrosYusubArtemys 314KwettirPolymax VIIIHollow PlanetEarth (alternate)GatewaySycoraxBira IIINjuraOmne's planetVoranRazarMercanAleriadAritaniYalboVulcanUnnamed Hoshan planetsTanisAragosAleph PrimeAleph IIIAntos IVTakoi homeworldEarthDenebiaVeneu IIKlondike VIIsitra ZeroPelosArchernar IVTalos IVPillagra/R-855EarthStarbase 12Tomarii
planets visited by the USS Enterprise (NCC-1701) (2273-2285)
James T. Kirk's second five-year mission (2273 - 2278)
2273 EarthNelestraDaran IVThallusYannid VIStarbase 16 planetAndrea IVCalibus VIIToltan ColonyForma VIAgena IVTarsus IITelosAbarisMycenaStarbase 8 planetBarak-7Cragon VSycoraxAndronicusStarbase 28 planet
2274 MestikoHus-24SarsithiaVulpecula 12 IVIskoniaHamal IV (Starbase 18) • MimitEarthThoris Amarnis IVZeta-AtezArgus IVCytheriusPhaetonHephaestusZeta Reticuli IIStarbase 9 planetMiaplacidus VValerianGoran IVNordstralHelvaZaran II
2275 EarthFlyspeckVulcanFeeniks-Denn IVNova EmpyreaYkoMiri's homeworldPerinda IVVega systemOblik IIIGarrus
2276 Sigma 1212Zenna IVDuran XIIParides IVLevaeri VArtaleirh
2277 Lycos VVarda IIIKhepriPollox IVUpsilon Xi IIILieberman's WorldMacedon IIIMarris VOmicron Theta VAyin Aleph IIILam Qaf Kha IIKappa Rho IVManark VMurakami IX
2278 CathyGranotoulomines planetHippocrates IVDekkanarAkkallaEarthBelle TerreLycos V
Spock's command (2278 - 2285) MestikoEarthFortenueCirce VIThieurrullStarbase 12RegulaEarthHellguardEarthDelta IVRatorYkoMestikoEarth
Admiral Kirk's command (2285) EarthRegula IGenesis PlanetAzphariOrganiaBeta Epsilon VIBabelVulcanRomulan planetoidEarthGenesis Planet
planets visited by the USS Enterprise (Kelvin timeline)
EarthVulcanDelta Vega (Vulcan system)SaturnTitanDelta Vega (Delta Vega sector)Taurus IIMakus IIIDenevaGamma Trianguli VIBeta IIIIota Geminorum IVNew VulcanPhaedusNibiruuninhabited planetoidParthenon 559KhitomerQo'noSHinrichs VDark MarketBanks-216Nodell-16OaCeti Alpha VVondem
Planets visited by the USS Enterprise-D
2364 EarthDeneb IVArcharia IIILigon IIStyris IVOmicron ThetaGamma Tauri IVDelphi Ardu IVPeacekeepers' WorldParliamentRubicun IIIQuadra Sigma IIIHavenTorona IVAngel IStarbase 74 planetBynausTigan VIISyntagus TheluvTarod IXFaltosPersephone VMordan IVAldeaVelara IIIRelva VIIMinosBrentis VITrevaVagra IIOrnaraBrekkaVandor IVSarona VIIIDytallix B
2365 'aucdet IXTenaraEpsilon Miranda VDQN 1196RaimonFeeniks-Denn IVHimalias VThiopaGravesworldRamatis IIISolais VGagarin IVElysiaIconiaTheta 116 VIIIPacificaBringloid VMariposaDrema IVBraslota IISurata IV
2366 Kavis Alpha IVTau Cygna VGalorndon CoreAcamar IIIOrelious IXBre'el IVCassiopeia Delta VIIArcher IVBetazedVulcanRutia IVCawley IVGrindelwaldJouret IV
2367 SaturnEarthTurkana IVCamus IITagus IIIMalcor IIIAdelphous IVEvadne IVQo'noS
2368 Qo'noSEl-Adrel IVValo IValo IIQualor IIVulcanGalorndon CoreHermeticus IIVotar VIISindarJ'naiiNaia VIIDelta IVCogen VTau LeeTessen IIIRajatha PrimeEarth
2369 FrigisHobson Delta IIBajorElohRiatAtrea IVNervala IVEnoch VIIEarth
2370 Terrellian crashsite worldMarijne VIIN'trahnDessica IIBarradas IIICalder IIVulcanKesprytt IIIEnoch VIIDyson SphereHeraAtrea IVVacca VIDorvan VHeraKrantinSyng IIEarth
2371 SindikashThanetNtignanoDamianoVeridian III
planets visited by the USS Enterprise (NCC-1701-E)
EarthElamin IXAlgenib IISalva IVChiaros IVKendarayDenobulaGalor IVGornarBetazedRaknal VBa'kuHalkaPrimus IVGemworldTaDBlossom IVTerra GalanBajorNarendra IIIPelleus VSolosos IIIDavlos VICygnet IVMyrmidonTezwaKolarus IIIRomulusTolochon IIDokalaan homeworldDokaalan colonyCarreaDelta Sigma IVGorsach IXTrophy WorldRamatis IIIFromander IVVulcan
planets visited by the USS Stargazer
VulcanEarthTewa IIIRaimonGnalaXenexChalnaMaxia Zeta IV
explored galaxy map
states and organizations First FederationTholian Assembly Explored galaxy map.
regions KlingRomulan Neutral ZoneSarpeid
stars and systems AldeberanAlpha CarinaeAlpha CenturiAlpha MajorisBeta AurigaeBeta GeminorumBeta LyraeBeta NiobeBeta PortalanCapellaDenebEminiarFabrinaGamma TrianguliIngraham BOmega CygniOrionPallas 14PhylosRegulusRigelSiriusSolTalosTau Ceti
planets and planetoids Alfa 177Altair VIAndorArretAriannusBabelBeneciaBerengaria VIICamus IICanopus IIIDaran VGamma Canaris NHolberg 917GJanus VIKzinLactra VIIMakus IIIMarcos XIIMarnak IVMemory AlphaMuddOmega IVOrganiaPollux IVPsi 2000Pyrix VIIRemusRomulusTheta IIIVulcan


Appearances and references[edit | edit source]

Appearances[edit | edit source]

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2267

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2409

References[edit | edit source]

External links[edit | edit source]

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