The War of Martian Independence, commonly known as the Martian Revolution to non-Martians, was a conflict fought between the colonists of Mars and Earth personnel in the early 22nd century, which resulted in Mars's political independence from Earth. (ST novel: Preserver, TNG - Section 31 novel: Rogue)
The war began with the Gundersdottir's Dome Rebellion in 2105, which led to a bloody conflict with Mars's colonial masters on Earth. During the war, a series of Red Planet general strikes rocked Earth's economy. The war eventually culminated in the Fundamental Declarations of the Martian Colonies and the independence of the Confederated Martian Colonies from Earth. (ENT novel: Beneath the Raptor's Wing, TOS novel: Inception)
In later generations, some Martians came to feel Mars' status as a Federation member state, and the site of the Federation Starfleet's Utopia Planitia Fleet Yards, had diminished the status their ancestors had fought for years earlier. (TNG - Section 31 novel: Rogue)
- The War of Martian Independence seems to have been fought before the founding of United Earth in 2130. Presumably the Martian colonies were originally the holdings of one or more Earth nations, from whom they gained independence.