A warrant is a legal document issued by a government authorizing a specific action to be taken against an individual or organization. They are usually issued by a court and are directed to the appropriate law enforcement officers.
Warrants can be issued for a variety of purposes, including to authroize the search of property or the arrest of a person.
The Klaestron government issued a warrant for the Dax on charges of treason and murder for the death of Ardelon Tandro before the truth came out that Dax was with Tandro's wife at the time of his death. (DS9 episode: "Dax")
Following the exposure of Section 31 to the public at large, Federation wide arrest warrants were issued for many of its senior leaders, including William Ross and Alynna Nechayev. Both officers were taken in to custody after Federation Security Agency agents caught up with them. (TNG novel: Available Light).